Propionate metabolism

SIDE EFFECTS:
It should be noted that in theory if one was to consistently suppress your natural estrogen levels for a long period of time, this would negatively impact your health, including your cholesterol. Due to the ability of Letrozole- to inhibit estrogen so much, this should definitely be a concern to most users. However the research that has focused on the relationship between use of letrozole and cholesterol levels is rather inconsistent in it's findings. Many studies have concluded that the compound is detrimental to both a user's HDL and LDL cholesterol levels, while other research has found no link. Obviously individuals are best served to monitor their cholesterol while using any compound via blood tests however barring that, letrozole should simply not be run for extended periods of time if at all possible. Doing so could cause serious medical complications.
Along with the issues related to blood lipids is the fact that many users complain that their libido is dramatically reduced when using the compound. This is related to the fact that estrogen is partly responsible for the regulation of an individual's sex drive. Since Letrozole- is so potent it can often drive estrogen levels too low and this inhibits a user's libido. To avoid this users can lower dosages, but some anecdotally report that even extremely low doses of the drug can cause problems. If this is the case a less potent compound such as exemestane or anastrozole may be a more appropriate option.

Catabolism of odd-chain-length fatty acids yields acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. A common pathway of propionyl-CoA metabolism in micro-organisms is the methylcitrate cycle, which includes the dedicated enzymes methylcitrate synthase (MCS), methylcitrate dehydratase (MCD) and methylisocitrate lyase (MCL). The methylcitrate cycle is essential for propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Unusually, M. tuberculosis lacks an MCL orthologue and this activity is provided instead by two isoforms of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL1 and ICL2). These bifunctional (ICL/MCL) enzymes are jointly required for propionate metabolism and for growth and survival in mice. In contrast, the non-pathogenic species Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes a canonical MCL enzyme in addition to ICL1 and ICL2. The M. smegmatis gene encoding MCL ( prpB ) is clustered with genes encoding MCS ( prpC ) and MCD ( prpD ). Here we show that deletion of the M. smegmatis prpDBC locus reduced but did not eliminate MCL activity in cell-free extracts. The residual MCL activity was abolished by deletion of icl1 and icl2 in the Δ prpDBC background, suggesting that these genes encode bifunctional ICL/MCL enzymes. A Δ prpB Δ icl1 Δ icl2 mutant was unable to grow on propionate or mixtures of propionate and glucose. We hypothesize that incomplete propionyl-CoA metabolism might cause toxic metabolites to accumulate. Consistent with this idea, deletion of prpC and prpD in the Δ prpB Δ icl1 Δ icl2 background paradoxically restored growth on propionate-containing media. These observations suggest that the marked attenuation of ICL1/ICL2-deficient M. tuberculosis in mice could be due to the accumulation of toxic propionyl-CoA metabolites, rather than inability to utilize fatty acids per se.

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Fluticasone propionate is a highly selective agonist at the glucocorticoid receptor with negligible activity at androgen , estrogen , or mineralocorticoid receptors , thereby producing anti-inflammatory and vasoconstriction effects. It has been shown to have a wide range of inhibitory effects on multiple cell types (. mast cell , eosinophil , neutrophil , macrophages , and lymphocytes ) and mediators (. histamine , eicosanoids , leukotrienes , and cytokines ) involved in inflammation . Fluticasone propionate is stated to exert a topical effect on the lungs without significant systemic effects at usual doses, due to its low systemic bioavailability .

Propionate metabolism

propionate metabolism

Fluticasone propionate is a highly selective agonist at the glucocorticoid receptor with negligible activity at androgen , estrogen , or mineralocorticoid receptors , thereby producing anti-inflammatory and vasoconstriction effects. It has been shown to have a wide range of inhibitory effects on multiple cell types (. mast cell , eosinophil , neutrophil , macrophages , and lymphocytes ) and mediators (. histamine , eicosanoids , leukotrienes , and cytokines ) involved in inflammation . Fluticasone propionate is stated to exert a topical effect on the lungs without significant systemic effects at usual doses, due to its low systemic bioavailability .

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