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The list below gives the reference number (the "E number") and the English name of all those additives now listed in Annex II of Regulation 1333/2008 . Although the Annex in the original Regulation was empty, by virtue of Regulation 1129/2011 of 11 November 2011 (and related amendments) , this now contains the comprehensive listing of permitted additives and their permitted uses. For links to the main Regulation, the amendments and a consolidated version of the Regulation, return to the main food additive page [ click here ]
Metabolism of propanoate begins with its conversion to propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), the usual first step in the metabolism of carboxylic acids. Since propanoic acid has three carbons, propionyl-CoA can directly enter neither beta oxidation nor the citric acid cycles. In most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated to D-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is isomerised to L-methylmalonyl-CoA. A vitamin B 12 -dependent enzyme catalyzes rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle and can be readily incorporated there.